Historical anecdotes relating to tax information exchange and cross-border assistance with tax collection (continued)
This week I continue in my historical anecdotes leading back up to the subject of cross-border tax (financial) information exchange and cross-border tax collection. In this blogticle I turn to the OECD Model Convention for Mutual Administrative Assistance in the Recovery of Tax Claims and the EU Directive on the Mutual Assistance for the Recovery of Claims In our live webinars in the tax treaty course, Marshall Langer will continue to address these issues indepthly.
1981 OECD Model Convention for Mutual Administrative Assistance in the Recovery of Tax Claims
This 1981 OECD Model provides for both the exchange of information (article 5) and the assistance in recovery (article 6), which state respectively:
EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION
At the request of the applicant State the requested State shall provide any information useful to the applicant State in the recovery of its tax claim and which the requested State has power to obtain for the purpose of recovering its own tax claims.
ASSISTANCE IN RECOVERY
1. At the request of the applicant State the requested State shall recover tax claims of the first-mentioned State in accordance with the laws and administrative practice applying to the recovery of its own tax claims, unless otherwise provided by this Convention.
Procedurally, the documentation must state (1) the authority requesting, (2) name, address and other particulars for identification of the taxpayer, (3) nature and components of the tax claim, and (4) assets of which the Requesting State is aware of from which the claim may be recovered. The nature of the tax claim must include documentary evidence in the form of the instrumentality establishing that the tax is determined, that it is due, and that it is without further recourse to contest under the Requesting State’s laws. The applicable Statute of Limitation is of the Requesting State.
The Requested State’s obligation is limited, as under the OECD DTA Model Article 26 and 27, if the request requires the Requested State to go beyond its own or the Requesting State’s capacity to either provide information or take administrative actions pursuant to their respective internal laws. The Requesting State has a duty to exhaust its own reasonable collection remedies before making the request which procedural requirement may be relied upon by the Requested State. All requests are also limited by ordre public.
1988 Convention On Mutual Administrative Assistance In Tax Matters
Coming into force April 1, 1995 amongst the signatories Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Sweden, and the US, this multilateral convention was originally agreed in 1988. The Convention provides for exchange of information, foreign examination, simultaneous examination, service of documents and assistance in recovery of tax claims.
Tax covered includes income, capital gains, wealth, social security, VAT and sales tax, excise tax, immovable property tax, movable property tax such as automobiles, and any other tax save customs duties. The tax also includes any penalties and recovery costs. The tax may have been levied by the State and any of its subdivisions.
The convention allows the request of information regarding the assessment, collection, recovery and enforcement of tax. The information may be used for criminal proceedings on a case-by-case basis pursuant to the Requested State agreeing, unless the States have waived the requirement of agreement.
Spontaneous provision of information shall be provided without request when a State with information:
(1) has “grounds for supposing” a loss of tax to another State,
(2) knows that a taxpayer receives a tax reduction in its State that would increase the tax in the other State,
(3) is aware of business dealings between parties located in both States that saves tax,
(4) has grounds for supposing an artificial intro-group transfer of profits, and
(5) that was obtained from the other State has led to further information about taxes in the other State.
Similar to the OECD Model Conventions above, procedurally the requesting documentation must state (1) the authority requesting and (2) name, address and other particulars for identification of the taxpayer. For an information request, the document should include in what form the information should be delivered. For a tax collection assistance request, (1) the tax must be evidenced by documentation in the form of the instrumentality establishing that the tax is determined, that it is due and that it is without further recourse to contest, (2) the nature and components of the tax claim, and (3) assets of which the Requesting State is aware of from which the claim may be recovered.
This Multilateral Convention’s limitations follow the 1981 and 2003 OECD Model, but further provide for a non-discrimination clause. The non-discrimination clause limits providing assistance if such assistance would lead to discrimination between a requested State’s national and requesting State’s nationals in the same circumstances.
2001 EU Directive on the Mutual Assistance for the Recovery of Claims relating to Certain Levies, Duties, Taxes and Other Measures
The OECD is not alone in its quest to improve tax information exchanges. On June 15, 2001 the EU Commission issued a Directive that amended a previous 1976 Directive which substantially changed the impact of that 1976 Directive (on mutual assistance for the recovery of claims resulting from operations forming part of the system of financing the European Agricultural Guidance and Guarantee Fund, and of agricultural levies and customs duties and in respect of value added tax and certain excise duties).
The 2001 Directive provided that Member States enact regulations that provide for the implementation of a number of EU Directives on mutual assistance between Member States of the Community on the provision of information in respect of, and the recovery in the State of, claims made by Other Member States in respect of debts due to the Member State in question from:
- Import & Export Duties
- Value Added Tax
- Excise duties on manufactured tobacco, alcohol and alcoholic beverages and mineral oils
- Taxes on income and capital
- Taxes on insurance premiums
- Interest, administrative penalties and fines, and costs incidental to these claims (with the exclusion of any sanction in respect of which the act or commission giving rise to the sanction if committed in the State would be criminal in nature)
- Refunds, interventions and other measures forming part of the system of financing the European Agricultural Guidance and Guarantee Fund
- Levies and other duties provided for under the common organization of the market of the market for the sugar section
In summary, the Directive provides for one Member State’s competent authority at the request of another Member State’s competent authority to disclose to the requester’s competent authority any information in relation to a claim which is required to be disclosed by virtue of the Directive.
On receipt of a request, the Revenue Commissioners can decline a request to provide information in the following circumstances:
– if the information would, in the opinion of the Competent Authority, be liable to prejudice the security of the State or be contrary to public policy;
– if the Competent Authority would not be able to obtain the information requested for the purpose of recovering a similar claim, or
– if the information, in the opinion of the Competent Authority, would be materially detrimental to any commercial, industrial or professional secrets.
Any information provided to a competent authority under the enacting regulations pursuant to the Directive can only be used for the purposes of the recovery of a claim or to facilitate legal proceedings to the recovery of such a claim.
Under the Directive, the collecting Member State is obliged to collect the amount of a claim specified in any request received from a competent authority in another Member State and remit the amount collected to that competent authority.
In the Tax Treaties course, Prof. Marshall Langer will be undertaking an in-depth analysis of these instruments and issues raised above regarding the IRS efforts to collect tax via assistance from foreign states. For further tax treaty course information, please contact me at William Byrnes (firstname.lastname@example.org).