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Analysis of the 2016 Final W-8BEN-E and its Accompanying Instructions

Posted by William Byrnes on June 16, 2016


IRS Releases Revised 2016 W-8BEN-E and Accompanying Instructions

William Byrnes and Haydon Perryman

This month we turn our attention to the recently revised 2016 W-8BEN-E form which has book cover30 parts over eight pages that can be catalogued into four sections. The IRS released its previous substantial update of the W-8BEN-E in February 2014 and in April 2016 its most recent revisionary updated form with accompanying updated instructions.  The 2016 revision more represents a technical correction release for the evolution of FATCA and its IGAs since 2014 than substantive changes.   The 2014 W-8 series update, on the other hand, was a major departure from the previous series, exemplified by the former W-8BEN in use since 2006 had just four parts.   The 2014 Forms may continue to be used by institutions until October 2016 when it becomes mandatory to switch to the new 2016 W-8BEN-E.  For a detailed FATCA evolution from pre-2010 through 2016, download my 118 page article.

Most Important Updates

This new 2016 W-8BEN-E includes three primary amendments.

Inclusion of Limitation of Benefits Categories

Firstly, the new W-8BEN-E contains 10 new potential items for selection to comply with a “Limitation of Benefits” (LOB) article of a double tax agreement to receive the advantages of the agreements reduced withholding provision. These new LOB boxes reside within Part III – Claim of Tax Treaty Benefits, Line 14.  The items include the nine main tests that can be met to satisfy an LOB provision, and then includes a tenth “Other” catch-all category that requires the filer cite to the treaty article and paragraph number test not covered within the nine categories.

Moreover, line 15 requires further explanation be provided of how additional conditions are met to qualify for any further exceptional reduction of withholding.  Line 15 must be used only if claiming treaty benefits that require that meeting conditions not already covered by the representations of line 14 (or other certifications on the form).

This line is generally not applicable to claiming treaty benefits under an interest or dividends (other than dividends subject to a preferential rate based on ownership) article of a treaty or other income article, unless such article requires additional representations. For example, certain treaties allow for a zero rate on dividends for certain qualified residents provided that additional requirements are met, such as ownership percentage, ownership period, and that the resident meet a combination of tests under an applicable LOB article.

New FATCA Category for Non-Financial Accounts

Secondly, a new checkbox has been added to the chapter 4 statuses in line 5 for payments made to payees for accounts they hold that are not financial accounts under the FATCA regulations [section 1.1471-5(b)(2)]. See Chapter 7A of the Guide to FATCA Compliance for a detailed analysis of this topic.

Coordination with IGAs

Finally, the new W-8BEN-E instructions are amended to coordinate qualification for the status of a nonreporting FFI under the IGA with a deemed-compliant FFI status under the chapter 4 regulations. An FFI that meets the requirements of both a nonreporting IGA FFI under the IGA and under the regulations should certify as a nonreporting IGA FFI, unless such entity meets the requirements for owner-documented FFI status for payments associated with this form, in which case it should certify to that status under the regulations only by completing Part X of the form.

The W-8BEN-E Structure

The filer’s primary focus will be on Part I.

Identifying Information and Choice of Classification part: All filers of the W-8BEN-E must complete Parts I (Identifying Information and FATCA Classification). Part I of the W-8BEN-E requires general information, the QI status, and the FATCA classification of the filer. Question 4 of Part I requests the QI status. If the filer is a disregarded entity, partnership, simple trust, or grantor trust, and also is claiming benefits under a U.S. tax treaty, then the filer must complete Part III. Part I, Question 5 requests the FATCA classification of the filer, of which the form list 31 choices. The classification indicated determines which one of the parts IV through XXVIII must be completed.

General Certification part: All filers must complete Part XXX (General Certification). Part XXX requires certification, under penalty of perjury, by the payee or a person authorized to sign on the payee’s behalf. This part of the final form also requires the signatory agree that she will submit a new form within 30 days if any certification made on this form becomes incorrect.

The signatory is certifying, subject to perjury:

The entity identified on line 1 of this form is the beneficial owner of all the income to which this form relates, is using this form to certify its status for chapter 4 purposes, … 

  • The entity identified on line 1 of this form is not a U.S. person, 
  • The income to which this form relates is: (a) not effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business in the United States, (b) effectively connected but is not subject to tax under an income tax treaty, or (c) the partner’s share of a partnership’s effectively connected income, and 
  • For broker transactions or barter exchanges, the beneficial owner is an exempt foreign person as defined in the instructions.

Moreover, Line XXIX for identification of substantial U.S. owners is subject to the same perjury statement and other certifications made in Part XXX.

Specific Certification of FATCA Classification part: Completion of the other parts of the form W-8BEN-E will depend upon the Part I, Question 5 FATCA classification of the filer.

Substantial U.S. Owner part: The information required to answer this line may be attached to the form in a separate statement, which remains subject to the same perjury statement and other certifications made in part XXX.  A filer that is a passive NFFE and thus completes part XXVI must also complete as well as part XXIX if it has substantial U.S. owners.

For a Passive NFFE, a specified U.S. person is a substantial U.S. owner if the person has more than a 10 percent beneficial interest in the entity.  But if an applicable IGA instead employs the standard of “controlling U.S. persons”, then the filer must look to the definition of a controlling person within the IGA of the jurisdiction of the financial institution to which the W-8BEN-E is provided.

Who Must Provide the W-8BEN-E?

A foreign entity must submit a Form W-8BEN-E to the withholding agent if it will receive a FATCA withholdable payment, receive a payment subject to chapter 3 withholding, or if it maintains an account with an FFI.

Disregarded Entity

A disregarded entity with a U.S. owner or a disregarded entity with a foreign owner that is not otherwise able to fill out Part II (i.e., because it is in the same country as its single owner and does not have a GIIN) may provide this form to an FFI solely for purposes of documenting itself for chapter 4 purposes. In such a case, the disregarded entity should complete Part I as if it were a beneficial owner and should not complete line 3.

Beneficial Owners

Form W-8 BEN-E must be provided by each of the entities that are beneficial owners of a payment, or of another entity that is a beneficial owner. If the income or account is jointly owned by more than one person, then the income or account will be treated by the withholding agent as owned by a foreign beneficial owner only if Forms W-8BEN or W-8BEN-E are provided by each owner of the account.

Treatment as a U.S. Account

If the withholding agent or financial institution receives a Form W-9 from any of the joint owners, then the payment must be treated as made to a U.S. person and the account treated as a U.S. account. An account will be treated as a U.S. account for FATCA by an FFI if any of the account holders is a specified U.S. person or a U.S.-owned foreign entity, unless the account is otherwise excepted from U.S. account status for FATCA purposes.

Expiration of Form W-8 BEN-E

Generally, a Form W-8BEN-E will remain valid for purposes of both chapters 3 and 4 for a period starting on the date the form is signed and ending on the last day of the third succeeding calendar year, unless a change in circumstances makes any information on the form incorrect. For example, a Form W-8BEN signed on September 30, 2014 remains valid through December 31, 2017. However, under certain conditions, a Form W-8BEN-E will remain in effect indefinitely until a change of circumstances occurs.

Change in Circumstances

If a change in circumstances makes any information on the Form W-8 BEN-E incorrect for purposes of either chapter 3 or chapter 4, then the submitting person must notify the withholding agent or financial institution maintaining the account within 30 days of the change in circumstances and must file a new Form W-8 BEN-E (or other appropriate form as applicable).

The new 2016 instructions point out that if the submitter has relied upon an IGA to respond to the form, and the country is thereafter removed from the U.S. Treasury list of current IGAs, then from the date of removal a ‘change of circumstances’ has occurred.  The W-8BEN-E will no longer be ‘fit for purpose’ after the expiration of the change of circumstance time frame. 

Which of the 30 Parts of the W-8BEN-E to Complete?

The 2014 and 2016 W-8BEN-E form has thirty parts presented over eight pages, whereas the former 2006 dual-purpose W8BEN had just four parts.  The 2016 Form W-8BEN-E, and did the 2014 version, includes both the QI (U.S. IRC Title III) and the FATCA (U.S. IRC Title IV) entity classification reporting requirements.

All filers of the W-8BEN-E must complete Parts I and XXX. The FATCA classification indicated determines which one of the Parts IV through XXVIII must be completed, and whether substantial U.S. owners must be identified under part XXIX. 

Part I – Identification of Beneficial Owner

Part I of the W-8BEN-E requires general information, the QI status, and the FATCA classification of the filer. 

Line 1. A disregarded entity or branch enters the legal name of the entity that owns the disregarded entity (looking through multiple disregarded entities if applicable) or maintains the branch. 

Line 2. A corporation must enter its country of incorporation.  Any other type of entity must instead enter the country under whose laws it is created, organized, or governed. 

Line 3. A disregarded entity receiving a payment should only enter its name on line 3 if it is receiving a withholdable payment or hold an account with an FFI and

  1. has registered with the IRS and been assigned a GIIN associated with the legal name of the disregarded entity;
  2. is a reporting Model 1 FFI or reporting Model 2 FFI; and
  3. is not a hybrid entity using this form to claim treaty benefits.

If not required to provide the legal name, then a disregarded entity receiving a payment or maintaining an account may instead enter its name on line 3.

Line 4 firstly requests the Chapter 3 status of the recipient for purposes of U.S. withholding on U.S. source income.  Question 4 formerly presented 11 entity types from which the filer may select one. The 2016 W-8BEN-E includes a new entity type, the “International Organization” and thus 12 choices.

Secondly, if the filer is a disregarded entity, partnership, simple trust, or grantor trust, then the filer must tick in the affirmative and complete Part III if the entity is claiming benefits under a U.S. tax treaty.

Line 5 requests the FATCA classification of the entity.  The W-8BEN-E currently lists 32 FATCA classifications of which the entity should check only one box, whereas the previous list contained 31 classification choices.  The previous 2014 instructions also stated that only one box should be chosen but with a caveat “unless otherwise indicated”.  The 2016 W-8BEN-E instructions have been updated to state: “Check the one box that applies to your chapter 4 status.”

Several of the 32 classifications have had internal language updates to better align with the regulations or deadlines that have passed since 2014.  By example, the classification choice of “Sponsored FFI” no longer has the reference “that has not obtained GIIN”.  These modifications will be analyzed in depth in the Guide to FATCA Compliance.

Account That is Not a Financial Account

However, noteworthy is the newly added thirty-second classification because it is causing some confusion among compliance officers.  It reads “Account That is Not a Financial Account”.  The line 5 instruction states that if the filer is merely providing this form to document an account held with a financial institution that is not a financial account under Regulations section 1.1471-5(b)(2), then check the “Account that is not a financial account” box on line 5.

Why is this category necessary?  Because the regulations limit the scope of what types of financial institution accounts are included for the FATCA definition of financial account.  By example, the regulations exclude certain escrow accounts established for commercial transactions from treatment as financial accounts. The regulations also exclude negotiable debt instruments that are traded on a regulated market or over-the-counter market and distributed through financial institutions.  The regulations limit the scope of a depository account to an account for the placing of money (as opposed to the holding of property) in the custody of an entity engaged in a banking or similar business.

The regulations also exclude certain accounts of insurance companies.  By example, the regulations provide that a depository account includes an amount that an insurance company holds under a guaranteed investment contract or under a similar agreement to pay or credit interest thereon. The regulations also provide that a depository account does not include an advance premium or premium deposit received by an insurance company, provided the prepayment or deposit relates to an insurance contract for which the premium is payable annually and the amount of the prepayment or deposit does not exceed the annual premium for the contract. Such amounts are also excluded from cash value for purposes of determining whether a contract is a cash value insurance contract.

Comments On Completion of Part I, Line 5

Where one of the following FATCA classifications is selected, then the entity’s GIIN must be obtained (in Part 1 Line 9a) and verified against the IRS GIIN list. An incomplete or truncated TIN or GIIN may not be relied upon. It is acceptable for a limited time period that instead of providing a GIIN in Part 1 Line 9a to state “Applied for.”  However, the W8-BEN-E becomes invalid if the GIIN is not provided and verified against the IRS GIIN list within 90 days.

(a) Participating FFI;

(b) Reporting Model 1 FFI;

(c) Reporting Model 2 FFI;

(d) Registered deemed-compliant FFI (other than a reporting Model 1 FFI or sponsored FFI that has not obtained a GIIN);

(e) Nonreporting IGA FFI (including an FFI treated as a registered deemed-compliant FFI under an applicable Model 2 IGA);

(f) Direct reporting NFFE; or

(g) Sponsored direct reporting NFFE;

If the country entered in Part 1 Line 2 is an IGA country then the option of “Nonparticipating FFI (including a limited FFI or an FFI related to a Reporting IGA FFI other than a registered deemed-compliant FFI or participating FFI)” is not acceptable.

If the organization is a Financial Institution in the United States maintaining its customer’s account in the U.S., then it should collect its customer’s Foreign TIN in Part 1, Line 9b. In that scenario, the lack of a Foreign TIN makes the W8-BEN-E invalid.
It is the W8-BEN-E that will identify most of the Passive NFFEs. The identification of Passive NFFE is a key concept which runs consistently not only through the U.S. Treasury version of FATCA, but also the IGAs, the latest FINCEN proposal (RIN 1506-AB25 issued July 30, 2014) and the CRS.

Passive NFFEs identify themselves as such in Part 1 Line 5 of the W-8 BEN-E. Where an entity declares itself a Passive NFFE in Part 1 Line 5 of the W-8 BEN-E, it has to complete part XXVI. Passive NFFEs are unique in that they have to declare either their U.S. beneficial owners or controlling persons on the W-8 BEN-E for the declaration to be valid. For the avoidance of doubt, the 2016 W-8BEN-E specifically includes mention of the possibility of a applicable IGA: “If providing the form to an FFI treated as a reporting Model 1 FFI or reporting Model 2 FFI, an NFFE may also use this Part for reporting its controlling U.S. persons under an applicable IGA”.

In most IGA Model 1 countries the concept of beneficial ownership is replaced by the pre-existing KYC/AML in that particular jurisdiction. In general, the concept of beneficial ownership is replaced in IGA Model 1 countries by the concept of “controlling persons” who own or control 25 percent of the entity. More accurately, in an IGA Model 1 country the U.S. beneficial ownership concept is replaced by whatever the rules are under that jurisdiction’s KYC/AML. Generally, but not always, this will be the controlling persons of at least 25 percent.

Moreover, the CRS looks to the controlling person. The latest FinCEN proposal that establishes regulations for U.S. financial institutions to apply FATCA in the U.S. includes both the “controlling person” and the “beneficial owner” concepts (see my Kluwer International Tax article of May 9, 2016: The Brave New World of AML and Tax Compliance Overlap for Tax Status Certification for FATCA, CRS and the EU. Why are so many compliance officers getting it wrong?).

32 categories to choose one from

  1. Nonparticipating FFI (including a limited FFI or an FFI related to a Reporting IGA FFI other than a deemed-compliant FFI, participating FFI, or exempt beneficial owner).
  2. Participating FFI.
  3. Reporting Model 1 FFI.
  4. Reporting Model 2 FFI.
  5. Registered deemed-compliant FFI (other than a reporting Model 1 FFI, sponsored FFI, or nonreporting IGA FFI covered in Part XII). See instructions.
  6. Sponsored FFI. Complete Part IV.
  7. Certified deemed-compliant nonregistering local bank. Complete Part V.
  8. Certified deemed-compliant FFI with only low-value accounts. Complete Part VI.
  9. Certified deemed-compliant sponsored, closely held investment vehicle. Complete Part VII.
  10. Certified deemed-compliant limited life debt investment entity. Complete Part VIII.
  11. Certified deemed-compliant investment advisors and investment managers. Complete Part IX.
  12. Owner-documented FFI. Complete Part X.
  13. Restricted distributor. Complete Part XI.
  14. Nonreporting IGA FFI. Complete Part XII.
  15. Foreign government, government of a U.S. possession, or foreign central bank of issue. Complete Part XIII.
  16. International organization. Complete Part XIV.
  17. Exempt retirement plans. Complete Part XV.
  18. Entity wholly owned by exempt beneficial owners. Complete Part XVI.
  19. Territory financial institution. Complete Part XVII.
  20. Nonfinancial group entity. Complete Part XVIII.
  21. Excepted nonfinancial start-up company. Complete Part XIX.
  22. Excepted nonfinancial entity in liquidation or bankruptcy. Complete Part XX.
  23. 501(c) organization. Complete Part XXI.
  24. Nonprofit organization. Complete Part XXII.
  25. Publicly traded NFFE or NFFE affiliate of a publicly traded corporation. Complete Part XXIII.
  26. Excepted territory NFFE. Complete Part XXIV.
  27. Active NFFE. Complete Part XXV.
  28. Passive NFFE. Complete Part XXVI.
  29. Excepted inter-affiliate FFI. Complete Part XXVII.
  30. Direct reporting NFFE.
  31. Sponsored direct reporting NFFE. Complete Part XXVIII.
  32. Account that is not a financial account.

FFIs Covered by an IGA and Related Entities

A reporting IGA FFI resident in, or established under the laws of, a jurisdiction covered by a Model 1 IGA should check “Reporting Model 1 FFI.” A reporting FFI resident in, or established under the laws of, a jurisdiction covered by a Model 2 IGA should check “Reporting Model 2 FFI.”

If the FFI is treated as a registered deemed-compliant FFI under an applicable IGA, it should check “Nonreporting IGA FFI” rather than “registered deemed-compliant FFI” and provide its GIIN in Part XII, line 26.

An FFI that is related to a reporting IGA FFI and that is treated as a nonparticipating FFI in its country of residence should check the box for nonparticipating FFI in line 5. An FFI that is related to a reporting IGA FFI and that is a participating FFI, deemed-compliant FFI, or exempt beneficial owner under the U.S. Treasury regulations or an applicable IGA should check the appropriate box for its chapter 4 status. 

Requirement to Provide a GIIN

If the entity is in the process of registering with the IRS as a participating FFI, registered deemed-compliant FFI, reporting Model 1 FFI, reporting Model 2 FFI, direct reporting NFFE, or sponsored direct reporting NFFE, but has not received a GIIN, it may complete this line by writing “applied for.” However, the person requesting this form must receive and verify the GIIN within 90 days.

For payments made prior to January 1, 2015, a Form W-8BEN-E provided by a reporting Model 1 FFI need not contain a GIIN. For payments made prior to January 1, 2016, a sponsored direct reporting NFFE or sponsored FFI that has not obtained a GIIN must provide the GIIN of its sponsoring entity in line 16. 

501(c) Organization

Only foreign entities that are tax-exempt under section 501 should check the 501(c) organization “Tax-exempt organization” box. Such organizations should use Form W-8BEN-E only if they are claiming a reduced rate of withholding under an income tax treaty or a code exception other than section 501. If claiming an exemption from withholding under code section 501, then it must submit Form W-8EXP to document the exemption and chapter 4 status. 

Non-Profit Organizations Covered by an IGA

A non-profit entity that is established and maintained in a jurisdiction that is treated as having in effect a Model 1 IGA or Model 2 IGA, and that meets the definition of Active NFFE under Annex I of the applicable IGA, should not check a box for its status on line 5. 

Completion of Parts IV through XXVIII

An entity should complete only one part of Parts IV through XXVIII certifying to the chapter 4 status. But an entity that selects nonparticipating FFI, participating FFI, registered deemed-compliant FFI, reporting Model 1 FFI, reporting Model 2 FFI, or direct reporting NFFE (other than a sponsored direct reporting NFFE) is not required to complete any of the certifications in Parts IV through XXVIII.

Part IV Sponsored FFI
Part V Certified Deemed-Compliant Nonregistering Local Bank
Part VI Certified Deemed-Compliant FFI with Only Low-Value Accounts
Part VII Certified Deemed-Compliant Sponsored, Closely Held Investment Vehicle
Part VIII Certified Deemed-Compliant Limited Life Debt Investment Entity
Part IX Certified Deemed-Compliant Investment Advisors and Investment Managers
Part X Owner-Documented FFI
Part XI Restricted Distributor
Part XII Nonreporting IGA FFI
Part XIII Foreign Government, Government of a U.S. Possession, or Foreign Central Bank of Issue
Part XIV International Organization
Part XV Exempt Retirement Plans
Part XVI Entity Wholly Owned by Exempt Beneficial Owners
Part XVII Territory Financial Institution
Part XVIII Excepted Nonfinancial Group Entity
Part XIX Excepted Nonfinancial Start-Up Company
Part XX Excepted Nonfinancial Entity in Liquidation or Bankruptcy
Part XXI 501(c) Organization
Part XXII Non-Profit Organization
Part XXIII Publicly Traded NFFE or NFFE Affiliate of a Publicly Traded Corporation
Part XXIV Excepted Territory NFFE
Part XXV Active NFFE
Part XXVI Passive NFFE
Part XXVII Excepted Inter-Affiliate FFI
Part XXVIII Sponsored Direct Reporting NFFE
Part XXIX Substantial U.S. Owners of Passive NFFE
Part XXX Certification 

Part X – Owner-Documented FFI 

Line 24a. An owner-documented FFI must check the box to certify that it meets all of the requirements for this status and is providing this form to a U.S. financial institution, participating FFI, reporting Model 1 FFI, or reporting Model 2 FFI that agrees to act as a designated withholding agent with respect to the FFI identified on line 1. Then select either 24b or 24c. 

Line 24b. Check this box to certify that the documentation set forth in the certifications has been provided (or will be provided), including the owner reporting statement described in this line 24b, or 

Line 24c. Check this box to certify that the auditor’s letter has been provided (or will be provided).

Entities Providing Certifications Under an Applicable IGA

In lieu of the certifications contained in Parts IV through XXVIII of Form W-8BEN-E, a reporting Model 1 FFI or reporting Model 2 FFI in certain cases may request alternate certifications to document its account holders pursuant to an applicable IGA or it may otherwise provide an alternate certification to a withholding agent.

A withholding agent that is an FFI may provide a chapter 4 status certification other than as shown in Parts IX through XXVIII in order to satisfy its due diligence requirements under an applicable IGA. In such a case, attach that alternative certification to this Form W-8BEN-E in lieu of completing a certification otherwise required in Parts IV through XXVIII provided that:

1) the certification accurately reflects the chapter 4 status or under an applicable IGA; and

2) the withholding agent provides a written statement that it has provided the certification to meet its due diligence requirements as a participating FFI or registered deemed-compliant FFI under an applicable IGA.

An applicable IGA certification may be provided with the W-8BEN-E if determining chapter 4 status under the definitions provided in an applicable IGA and that certification identifies the jurisdiction that is treated as having an IGA in effect and describes the status as an NFFE or FFI in accordance with the applicable IGA.

However, if under an applicable IGA the entity’s status is determined to be an NFFE, it must still determine if it is an excepted NFFE under the FATCA Regulations. Additionally, the entity must comply with the conditions of its status under the law of the IGA jurisdiction.

For more indepth analysis than we can provide within this month’s article, along with 50 contributors, we analyzed the FATCA and the CRS compliance challenges.  Besides in-depth, practical analysis, we include examples, charts, time lines, links to source documents, and compliance protocols pursuant to IGAs and local regulations.  download my 118 page introductory analysis here

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What Are the IRS Changes in the Newly Released Withholding Agreements for Foreign Trusts and Partnerships

Posted by William Byrnes on August 8, 2014


Revenue Procedure 2014-47 updates the Withholding Foreign Partnership (WP) and Withholding Foreign Trust (WT) agreements applicable to foreign partnerships and trusts that wishbook cover
to enter into a WP or WT withholding agreement with the IRS under ­§§1.1441-5(c)(2)(ii) and (e)(5)(iv).

Under Chapters 3 and 4, Application Procedures and Overview of Requirements for –

  • Withholding Foreign Partnership or
  • Withholding Foreign Trust Status

The procedure also contains the new –

  • Final Withholding Foreign Partnership Agreement
  • Final Withholding Foreign Trust Agreement

download for free –> LexisNexis® Guide to FATCA Compliance (Chapter 1, Background and Current Status of FATCA)

Reporting Forms?

If a foreign partnership has U.S. partners, the foreign partnership is generally required to file Form 1065 with a Schedule K-1 to report each U.S. partner.

If a foreign trust is a grantor trust with U.S. owners, the foreign trust is required to file Form 3520-A, Annual Information Return of a Foreign Trust with a U.S. Owner, and to provide statements to a U.S. owner, as well as each U.S. beneficiary who is not an owner and receives a distribution.

What Entities Are Eligible to Execute a WP or WT Agreement?

The WP agreement and WT agreement may be entered into by a foreign partnership and a foreign trust.

With respect to an FFI, the WP agreement and WT agreement may only be entered into by an FFI that agrees to satisfy the requirements and obligations of

1. a participating FFI (including a reporting Model 2 FFI),

2. a registered deemed-compliant FFI (including a reporting Model 1 FFI and a nonreporting Model 2 FFI treated as registered deemed-compliant), or

3. a registered deemed-compliant Model 1 IGA FFI (as defined in section 2 of the WP agreement or WT agreement).

An FFI that is a certified deemed-compliant FFI (including a nonreporting IGA FFI may enter into a WP agreement or WT agreement if the FFI meets and agrees to assume the obligations of, and to be treated as, a participating FFI (including a reporting Model 2 FFI), a registered deemed-compliant FFI (including a reporting Model 1 FFI or a nonreporting Model 2 FFI treated as registered deemed-compliant), or a registered deemed-compliant Model 1 IGA FFI.

An NFFE or an FFI that is a retirement fund (as defined in section 2 of the WP agreement or WT agreement) may also apply to enter into a WP agreement or WT agreement.

What Is the 2014 Effective Date of Execution of the Agreement?

  1. An entity (other than a retirement fund or an NFFE that is not a sponsoring entity) that applies for WP or WT status before August 31, 2014 and is approved will have a WP agreement or WT agreement with an effective date of June 30, 2014, provided that it obtains a GIIN, if it has not already done so, within 90 days of such approval.
  2. An entity (other than a retirement fund or an NFFE that is not a sponsoring entity) that applies after August 31, 2014 will have a WP agreement or WT agreement with an effective date of the date it is issued a WP-EIN or WT-EIN, if its application is approved and provided that it obtains a GIIN, if it has not already done so, within 90 days of such approval.
  3. A new WP or WT applicant that is a retirement fund or an NFFE that is not a sponsoring entity will have a WP agreement or WT agreement with an effective date of the date it is issued a WP-EIN or WT-EIN, if its application is approved.

What Is the Effective Date After 2014?

For calendar years after 2014, applications for WP or WT status received on or before March 31 of the calendar year, if approved, will be effective January 1 of that calendar year. Applications for WP or WT status received on or after April 1, if approved, will be effective January 1 of the following calendar year and the entity must be in compliance with the WP Agreement beginning January 1.

Withholding Requirements?

Chapter 4: FATCA

Section 1471(a) requires a withholding agent to deduct and withhold a tax equal to 30 percent on any withholdable payment made to an FFI, unless the FFI agrees to and complies with the terms of an FFI agreement to satisfy the obligations specified for a participating FFI, is deemed to meet these requirements of a deemed-compliant FFI, or is treated as an exempt beneficial owner.

Section 1472(a) requires a withholding agent to deduct and withhold a tax equal to 30 percent on any withholdable payment made to an NFFE unless such entity provides a certification that it does not have any substantial U.S. owners, provides information regarding its substantial U.S. owners, or an exception to these requirements otherwise applies.

A participating FFI (including a reporting Model 2 FFI) or registered deemed-compliant FFI (other than a reporting Model 1 FFI or registered deemed-compliant Model 1 IGA FFI) will
satisfy its requirement to withhold under sections 1471(a) and 1472(a) with respect to account holders of the FFI that are entities by withholding on withholdable payments made to
nonparticipating FFIs and recalcitrant account holders under the FFI agreement, or an applicable Model 2 IGA.  See the FFI agreement, §1.1471-5(f), and the applicable Model 2 IGA for the withholding requirements that apply to withholdable payments made to account holders of the FFI that are individuals treated as recalcitrant account holders.

A reporting Model 1 FFI or a registered deemed-compliant Model 1 IGA FFI will satisfy its requirement to withhold under section 1471(a) with respect to its account holders by withholding on withholdable payments made to nonparticipating FFIs to the extent required under the applicable Model 1 IGA. A withholding agent (including a participating FFI or registered deemed-compliant FFI) that is required to withhold on a withholdable payment must report the payment on Form 1042- S, Foreign Person’s U.S. Source Income Subject to Withholding.

A participating FFI (including a reporting Model 2 FFI) and certain registered deemed-compliant FFIs must, for a transitional period, report certain information about accounts it maintains that are held by nonparticipating FFIs. A withholding agent (including an FFI with respect to payments made to an NFFE that were not already reported with respect to a U.S. account or U.S. reportable account (as defined under the applicable Model 1 or Model 2 IGA) is also required to report withholdable payments made to an NFFE (other than an excepted NFFE) with substantial U.S. owners on Form 8966, FATCA Report, even though no withholding is required.

Chapter 3

A withholding agent is required to deduct and withhold a tax equal to 30 percent on any payment of U.S. source fixed or determinable annual or periodical (FDAP) income that is an amount subject to withholding made to a foreign person. A lower rate of withholding may apply under the Code, the regulations, or an income tax treaty. Generally, a withholding agent must also report the payments on Forms 1042-S, regardless of whether withholding is required.

Coordination of Withholding and Reporting Requirements under Chapters 3 and 4.

With respect to a payment that is subject to withholding under chapter 4, a withholding agent may credit any tax withheld under chapter 4 against its liability for any tax due with respect to the payment under chapter 3.  A withholding agent may use a single Form 1042-S to report information required under both chapters 3 and 4 with respect to a withholdable payment of U.S. source FDAP income subject to withholding under chapter 4 and for which a credit against the beneficial owner’s chapter 3 liability, if any, may be claimed.

Thus, a withholding agent that reports on Form 1042-S a withholdable payment that has been withheld upon under chapter 4 may provide certain information about the beneficial owner of the payment for purposes of chapter 3 on the same Form 1042-S.  With respect to a withholdable payment of U.S. source FDAP income that is not subject to withholding under chapter 4 and that is an amount subject to withholding (or reporting) under chapter 3, a withholding agent is also required to report the applicable chapter 4 exemption code in addition to the other information required to be reported on Form 1042-S.

What Are the Changes to the WP Agreement and the WT Agreement?

The revenue procedure revises and updates the WP and WT agreements to coordinate with the withholding and reporting requirements of chapter 4, and based on the IRS’ experience in dealing with these entities since the WP and WT agreements were first published in 2003.

Additionally, because a WP or WT will be required to assume primary withholding responsibility for chapter 4 purposes, the revised WP agreement and WT agreement expand the scope of payments for which an entity can act as a WP or WT to reportable amounts (as defined in section 2 of the WP or WT agreement, which includes withholdable payments). Thus, a WP or WT need not provide its withholding agent with a nonqualified intermediary withholding certificate and withholding statement for reportable amounts not subject to chapter 3 withholding that are allocable to partners, beneficiaries, or owners that are U.S. non-exempt recipients. A WP or WT will be required to report partners, beneficiaries, or owners that are U.S. non-exempt recipients on Form 8966, Schedule K-1, or Form 3520-A to the extent required under its FATCA requirements or the WP agreement or WT agreement.

Documentation Requirements.

The existing WP agreement and WT agreement require a WP or WT to document its partners, beneficiaries or owners solely with Forms W-8 and W-9 and do not permit reliance on the presumption rules of chapters 3 or 61. The revised WP agreement and WT agreement also prohibit reliance on the presumption rules with respect to a WP or WT’s direct partners, beneficiaries, or owners and retain an automatic termination provision for a WP or WT’s failure to obtain documentation for a direct partner, beneficiary, or owner.

The revised WP agreement and WT agreement provide for the use of documentary evidence, in lieu of a Forms W-8 or Form W-9, for direct partners, beneficiaries, or owners that is obtained by a WP or WT that is an FFI and that is subject to the “know-your-customer” practices and procedures of a jurisdiction that the IRS has approved.   A list of jurisdictions for which the IRS has received know-your-customer information and for which the know-yourcustomer rules are acceptable is available at: http://www.irs.gov/Businesses/International-Businesses/List-of-Approved-KYC-Rules.

The rules permitting the use of documentary evidence do not apply to an NFFE acting as a WP or WT, which is required to obtain Forms W-8 and W-9 to document the chapter 3 status and, when required, the chapter 4 status of its partners, beneficiaries, or owners.

Agency Option, Joint Account Option, and Indirect Partners.

The existing WP agreement and WT agreement do not allow a WP or WT to act as a WP or WT for its indirect partners, beneficiaries, or owners, except in two specific situations describe section 9 of the WP agreement or WT agreement (agency and joint account arrangements), both of which require a written agreement between the WP or WT and another foreign partnership or foreign trust.

Notwithstanding the restriction described above, the existing WP agreement and WT agreement were modified by rider in certain cases to permit a WP or WT to act as such for its indirect partners, beneficiaries, or owners, but the rider required specific payee reporting by the WP or WT with respect to these partners, beneficiaries, or owners.

The WP agreement and WT agreement are revised to provide that a WP or WT may act as a WP or WT with respect to direct and indirect partners, beneficiaries, or owners of a direct partner that is a passthrough partner (as defined in section 2 of the WP or WT agreement), provided that such partner, beneficiary, or owner is not a U.S. non-exempt recipient (unless such U.S. non-exempt recipient is included in the passthrough partner’s chapter 4 withholding rate pool of U.S. payees or recalcitrant account holders) in which case the WP or WT may also assume the withholding and Form 1042-S reporting requirements for these indirect partners.

Compliance Procedures.

The existing WP agreement and WT agreement require periodic audits by an external auditor in certain circumstances, including when a WP or WT made a pooled reporting election. The revised WP agreement and WT agreement replace the external audit requirement with an internal compliance program.

Modified Form 1065 Filing Requirement.

Under the existing WP agreement, unless modified by a rider, a WP is required to file Form 1065 and Schedules K-1 in accordance with the requirements of §1.6031(a)-1 and the instructions to the form.The revised WP agreement, incorporates the modified filing obligations under §1.6031(a)-1(b)(3) with certain revisions to permit a WP that meets the conditions specified in section 6.03(B) of the WP agreement, including that the WP would not otherwise be required to report a specifically allocated item to any partner on Schedule K-1, to either not file a partnership return or not file Schedules K-1 for certain foreign partners dependent on whether the WP has any direct or indirect U.S. partners.

SECTION 4. Withholding Foreign Partnership Agreement

Section 1. PURPOSE AND SCOPE
Section 2. DEFINITIONS
Section 3. WITHHOLDING RESPONSIBILITY
Section 4. DOCUMENTATION REQUIREMENTS
Section 5. WITHHOLDING FOREIGN PARTNERSHIP WITHHOLDING CERTIFICATE
Section 6. TAX RETURN AND INFORMATION REPORTING OBLIGATIONS
Section 7. ADJUSTMENTS FOR OVER- AND UNDERWITHHOLDING; REFUNDS
Section 8. COMPLIANCE PROCEDURES
Section 9. CERTAIN PARTNERSHIPS AND TRUSTS AND INDIRECT PARTNERS
Section 10. EXPIRATION, TERMINATION AND DEFAULT
Section 11. MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS
Section 12. EFFECTIVE DATE
 

SECTION 5. Withholding Foreign Trust Agreement

Section 1. PURPOSE AND SCOPE
Section 2. DEFINITIONS
Section 3. WITHHOLDING RESPONSIBILITY
Section 4. DOCUMENTATION REQUIREMENTS
Section 5. WITHHOLDING FOREIGN TRUST WITHHOLDING CERTIFICATE
Section 6. TAX RETURN AND INFORMATION REPORTING OBLIGATIONS
Section 7. ADJUSTMENTS FOR OVER- AND UNDERWITHHOLDING; REFUNDS
Section 8. COMPLIANCE PROCEDURES
Section 9. CERTAIN PARTNERSHIPS AND TRUSTS AND INDIRECT BENEFICIARIES AND OWNERS
Section 10. EXPIRATION, TERMINATION AND DEFAULT
Section 11. MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS
Section 12. EFFECTIVE DATE OF AGREEMENT

 

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Taxpayer Advocate Chimes In On Taxpayer Identification Numbers (TINs)

Posted by William Byrnes on July 21, 2014


Taxpayer AdvocateOn July 16, 2014 Nina Olson, the Taxpayer Advocate released her midyear report to Congress.  Volume 2 of the report contains the IRS’s responses to the administrative recommendations the National Taxpayer Advocate made in her 2013 annual report to Congress, along with additional TAS comments.

Individual Taxpayer Identification Numbers (ITINs)

The Taxpayer Advocated noted that in November 2012, the IRS announced permanent changes to its application procedures for ITINs.  As a result, found the Taxpayer Advocate, dependent ITIN applicants now face a substantial burden because they can no longer use a certifying acceptance agent (CAA) to certify their documents.  Dependents must mail original documents or copies certified by the issuing agency, or have the documents certified at an IRS taxpayer assistance center (TAC) or at one of just four U.S. tax attaché offices overseas.

What is an ITIN?

An Individual Taxpayer Identification Number (ITIN) is a tax processing number issued by the Internal Revenue Service. It is a nine-digit number that always begins with the number 9 and has a range of 70-88 in the fourth and fifth digit.  The range was extended to include 900-70-0000 through 999-88-9999, 900-90-0000 through 999-92-9999 and 900-94-0000 through 999-99-9999.

The IRS issues ITINs to individuals who are required to have a U.S. taxpayer identification number but who do not have, and are not eligible to obtain a Social Security Number (SSN) from the Social Security Administration (SSA).  ITINs are issued regardless of immigration status because both resident and nonresident aliens may have a U.S. filing or reporting requirement under the Internal Revenue Code.  Individuals must have a filing requirement and file a valid federal income tax return to receive an ITIN, unless they meet an exception.

What is an ITIN used for?

ITINs are for federal tax reporting only, and are not intended to serve any other purpose. IRS issues ITINs to help individuals comply with the U.S. tax laws, and to provide a means to efficiently process and account for tax returns and payments for those not eligible for Social Security Numbers (SSNs).  See my previous article on completing the W-8BEN.

An ITIN does not authorize work in the U.S. or provide eligibility for Social Security benefits or the Earned Income Tax Credit.

Who needs an ITIN?

IRS issues ITINs to foreign nationals and others who have federal tax reporting or filing requirements and do not qualify for SSNs. A non-resident alien individual not eligible for a SSN who is required to file a U.S. tax return only to claim a refund of tax under the provisions of a U.S. tax treaty needs an ITIN.  IRS processes returns showing SSNs or ITINs in the blanks where tax forms request SSNs.  IRS does not accept, and will not process, forms showing “SSA”, 205c”, “applied for”, “NRA”, & blanks, etc.

Other examples of individuals who need ITINs include:

  • A nonresident alien required to file a U.S. tax return
  • A U.S. resident alien (based on days present in the United States) filing a U.S. tax return
  • A dependent or spouse of a U.S. citizen/resident alien
  • A dependent or spouse of a nonresident alien visa holder

If a person does not have a SSN and is not eligible to obtain a SSN, but has a requirement to furnish a federal tax identification number or file a federal income tax return, then that person must apply for an ITIN.   By law, an alien individual cannot have both an ITIN and a SSN.

Why Are ITIN Applications Falling, ITIN Application Rejections Increasing?

From January through October 2013, applicants filed only one million ITIN applications with returns, compared to 1.8 million during the same period in 2012. During this period, ITIN applications and accompanying returns declined nearly 50%, while the percentage of applications rejected by the IRS soared to 50.2%.

The Taxpayer Advocate reports that an explanation for these numbers is the burden caused by the new ITIN procedures.

ITIN applicants report problems, including a lack of communication about why the IRS suspended or rejected an application, an inability to speak with IRS employees, a lack of notice about the status of the application, the rejection of applications with legitimate supporting documents, and lost original documents. The IRS’s policy of generally accepting ITIN applications only during the filing season forces the IRS to process applications under short timelines and does not provide sufficient time to review them for potential fraud.

The IRS stated in response that it does not plan to pursue electronic filing of the ITIN application. The IRS provided several reasons why its Form W-7, Application for IRS Individual Taxpayer Identification Number (ITIN) is not a suitable candidate for electronic filing:

In order to strengthen the ITIN program, when requesting an ITIN taxpayers are required to submit documentation that supports the information provided on the Form W-7. The applicant can submit original documents or certified copies from the issuing agency. The attachment of an electronic copy of the documents, such as a .pdf version of the supporting documentation, will not allow IRS to authenticate the documents as outlined in IRM 3.21.263. In addition, taxpayers are required to submit their original tax return(s) for which the ITIN is needed with the W-7 attached. The Modernized e-File (MeF) system is not able to accept both the W-7 and associated tax return(s) in the same transaction.

IRS Cancelling Unused ITINs

Individual Taxpayer Identification Numbers (ITINs) will expire if not used on a federal income tax return for five consecutive years, the Internal Revenue Service announced today. To give all interested parties time to adjust and allow the IRS to reprogram its systems, the IRS will not begin deactivating ITINs until 2016.

The new, more uniform policy applies to any ITIN, regardless of when it was issued. Only about a quarter of the 21 million ITINs issued since the program began in 1996 are being used on tax returns. The new policy will ensure that anyone who legitimately uses an ITIN for tax purposes can continue to do so, while at the same time resulting in the likely eventual expiration of millions of unused ITINs.

ITINs play a critical role in the tax administration system and assist with the collection of taxes from foreign nationals, resident and nonresident aliens and others who have filing or payment obligations under U.S. law. Designed specifically for tax administration purposes, ITINs are only issued to people who are not eligible to obtain a Social Security Number.

Under the new policy:

  • An ITIN will expire for any taxpayer who fails to file a federal income tax return for five consecutive tax years.
  • Any ITIN will remain in effect as long as a taxpayer continues to file U.S. tax returns. This includes ITINs issued after Jan. 1, 2013. These taxpayers will no longer face mandatory expiration of their ITINs and the need to reapply starting in 2018, as was the case under the old policy.
  • To ease the burden on taxpayers and give their representatives and other stakeholders time to adjust, the IRS will not begin deactivating unused ITINs until 2016. This grace period will allow anyone with a valid ITIN, regardless of when it was issued, to still file a valid return during the upcoming tax-filing season.
  • A taxpayer whose ITIN has been deactivated and needs to file a U.S. return can reapply using Form W-7. As with any ITIN application, original documents, such as passports, or copies of documents certified by the issuing agency must be submitted with the form.

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Over 600 pages of in-depth analysis of the practical compliance aspects of financial service business providing for exchange of information of information about foreign residents with their national competent authority or with the IRS (FATCA),

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Analysis of new 2014 FATCA W-8BEN-E Instructions

Posted by William Byrnes on June 25, 2014


free FATCA chapter download here —> http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2457671   Number of Pages in PDF File: 58

On June 25, 2014 the IRS released the W-8 BEN-E instructionsRead William Byrnes’ previous April 2 analysis of the W-8BEN-E here.  Read William Byrnes’ analysis of the W-8IMY instructions here.  For analysis of the requirements of the 31 FATCA entity classifications, see William Byrnes’ previous articles:  https://profwilliambyrnes.com/category/fatca/

Analysis of W-8BEN-E Instructions …

Who Must Provide W-8BEN-E?

A foreign entity must submit a Form W-8BEN-E to the withholding agent if it will receive a FATCA withholdable payment, receive a payment subject to chapter 3 withholding, or if it maintains an account with an FFI.

All Beneficial Owners

Form W-8 BEN-E must be provided by ALL the entities that are beneficial owners of a payment, or of another entity that is the beneficial owner.  If the income or account is jointly owned by more than one person, then the income or account will be treated by the withholding agent as owned by a foreign beneficial owner only if Forms W-8BEN or W-8BEN-E are provided by EVERY owner of the account.

Treatment as US Account

If the withholding agent or financial institution receives a Form W-9 from any of the joint owners, then the payment must be treated as made to a U.S. person and the account treated as a U.S. account.  An account will be treated as a U.S. account for FATCA by an FFI if any of the account holders is a specified U.S. person or a U.S.-owned foreign entity (unless the account is otherwise excepted from U.S. account status for FATCA purposes).

Hybrids

Hybrid Entity: A hybrid entity should give Form W-8BEN-E on its own behalf to a withholding agent only for income for which it is claiming a reduced rate of withholding under an income tax treaty or to document its chapter 4 status for purposes of maintaining an account with an FFI requesting this form (when it is not receiving withholdable payments or payments subject to chapter 3 withholding).

Reverse Hybrid: A reverse hybrid entity should give Form W-8BEN-E on its own behalf to a withholding agent only for income for which no treaty benefit is being claimed or to establish its status for chapter 4 purposes (when required).

Who Should Not Use Form W-8BEN-E?

US Person: If the filer is a US person (including US citizens, resident aliens, and entities treated as US persons, such as a corporation organized under the law of a state), then submit Form W-9, Request for Taxpayer Identification Number and Certification.

Foreign Insurance Company: A foreign insurance company that has made an election under section 953(d) to be treated as a U.S. person should submit Form W-9 to certify its “U.S. status” even if it is an FFI for FATCA purposes.  Certain foreign insurance companies issuing annuities or cash value insurance contracts that elect to be treated as a U.S. person for federal tax purposes but are not licensed to do business in the United States are treated as FFIs for purposes of chapter 4. For purposes of providing a withholding agent with documentation for both chapter 3 and chapter 4 purposes, however, such an insurance company is permitted to use Form W-9 to certify its status as a U.S. person.

NRA: A nonresident alien individual must submit Form W-8BEN, Certificate of Foreign Status of Beneficial Owner for United States Tax Withholding and Reporting (Individuals).

Disregarded: A U.S. person that is a single owner of a disregarded entity, and that is not also a hybrid entity claiming treaty benefits, should provide Form W-9.  A foreign branch of a U.S. financial institution (other than a branch that operates as a qualified intermediary) that is treated as an FFI under an applicable IGA is permitted to use Form W-9 to certify its status as a U.S. person for chapter 3 and chapter 4 purposes.

But if the single owner is not a U.S. person,is not a branch of an FFI claiming FATCA status, and is not a hybrid entity claiming treaty benefits, it should provide either Form W-8BEN or Form W-8BEN-E as appropriate.

Intermediary: Form W-8IMY is submitted generally by a payment recipient with non-beneficial owner status, i.e. an intermediary.  Such intermediary can be a U.S. branch, a qualified intermediary, a non-qualified intermediary, foreign partnership, foreign grantor or a foreign simple trust.  Read my analysis of W-8IMY and its instructions in my June 24th article.  An entity treated as a flow-through entity should generally provide Form W-8IMY for chapter 3 or chapter 4 purposes.

Expiration of Form W-8BEN-E.

Generally, a Form W-8BEN-E will remain valid for purposes of both chapters 3 and 4 for a period starting on the date the form is signed and ending on the last day of the third succeeding calendar year, unless a change in circumstances makes any information on the form incorrect.  For example, a Form W-8BEN signed on September 30, 2014 remains valid through December 31, 2017.  However, under certain conditions a Form W-8BEN-E will remain in effect indefinitely until a change of circumstances occurs.

Change in circumstances.

If a change in circumstances makes any information on the Form W-8BEN-E incorrect for purposes of either chapter 3 or chapter 4, then the submitting person must notify the withholding agent or financial institution maintaining the account within 30 days of the change in circumstances and you must file a new Form W-8BEN-E (or other appropriate form as applicable).

Certification

Part XXIX requires certification, under penalty of perjury, by the payee or a person authorized to sign on the payee’s behalf.  This part of the final form also contains the following language that does not appear in the current form: “I agree that I will submit a new form within 30 days if any certification made on this form becomes incorrect.”

Which of the 30 Parts of the W-8BEN-E to Complete?

The W-8BEN-E form has thirty parts, whereas the former dual-purpose W8BEN in use since 2006 has just four parts.  The new 2014 Form W-8BEN-E includes the FATCA and QI entity classification reporting requirements.

All filers of the new W-8BEN-E must complete Parts I and XXIX. The FATCA classification indicated determines which one of the Parts IV through XXVIII must be completed.

Part I – Identification of Beneficial Owner

Part I of the W-8BEN-E requires general information, the QI status, and the FATCA classification of the filer.

Question 1. A disregarded entity or branch enters the legal name of the entity that owns the disregarded entity (looking through multiple disregarded entities if applicable) or maintains the branch.

Question 2. A corporation must enter its country of incorporation.  Any other type of entity must instead enter the country under whose laws it is created, organized, or governed.

Question 3. A disregarded entity receiving a payment should only enter its name on line 3 if it is receiving a withholdable payment or hold an account with an FFI and

  1. has registered with the IRS and been assigned a GIIN associated with the legal name of the disregarded entity;
  2. is a reporting Model 1 FFI or reporting Model 2 FFI; and
  3. is not a hybrid entity using this form to claim treaty benefits.

If not required to provide the legal name, then a disregarded entity receiving a payment or maintaining an account may instead enter its name on line 10.

Question 4 requests the QI status. If the filer is a disregarded entity, partnership, simple trust, or grantor trust, then the filer must complete Part III if the entity is claiming benefits under a U.S. tax treaty.

Question 5 requests the FATCA classification of the entity.  W-8BEN-E currently lists 31 FATCA classifications of which the entity must check only one box unless otherwise indicated. Completion of the W-8BEN-E other parts depend upon the selection of the FATCA classification.

  1. Nonparticipating FFI (including a limited FFI or an FFI related to a Reporting IGA FFI other than a registered deemed-compliant FFI or participating FFI).
  2. Participating FFI.
  3. Reporting Model 1 FFI.
  4. Reporting Model 2 FFI.
  5. Registered deemed-compliant FFI (other than a reporting Model 1 FFI or sponsored FFI that has not obtained a GIIN).
  6. Sponsored FFI that has not obtained a GIIN. Complete Part IV.
  7. Certified deemed-compliant nonregistering local bank. Complete Part V.
  8. Certified deemed-compliant FFI with only low-value accounts. Complete Part VI.
  9. Certified deemed-compliant sponsored, closely held investment vehicle. Complete Part VII.
  10. Certified deemed-compliant limited life debt investment entity. Complete Part VIII.
  11. Certified deemed-compliant investment advisors and investment managers. Complete Part IX.
  12. Owner-documented FFI. Complete Part X.
  13. Restricted distributor. Complete Part XI.
  14. Nonreporting IGA FFI (including an FFI treated as a registered deemed-compliant FFI under an applicable Model 2 IGA). Complete Part XII.
  15. Foreign government, government of a U.S. possession, or foreign central bank of issue. Complete Part XIII.
  16. International organization. Complete Part XIV.
  17. Exempt retirement plans. Complete Part XV.
  18. Entity wholly owned by exempt beneficial owners. Complete Part XVI.
  19. Territory financial institution. Complete Part XVII.
  20. Nonfinancial group entity. Complete Part XVIII.
  21. Excepted nonfinancial start-up company. Complete Part XIX.
  22. Excepted nonfinancial entity in liquidation or bankruptcy. Complete Part XX.
  23. 501(c) organization. Complete Part XXI.
  24. Nonprofit organization. Complete Part XXII.
  25. Publicly traded NFFE or NFFE affiliate of a publicly traded corporation. Complete Part XXIII.
  26. Excepted territory NFFE. Complete Part XXIV.
  27. Active NFFE. Complete Part XXV.
  28. Passive NFFE. Complete Part XXVI as well as Part XXX if substantial U.S. owners*.
  29. Excepted inter-affiliate FFI. Complete Part XXVII.
  30. Direct reporting NFFE.
  31. Sponsored direct reporting NFFE. Complete Part XXVIII

*For a Passive NFFE, a specified U.S. person is a substantial U.S. owner if the person has more than a 10 percent beneficial interest in the entity.

FFIs Covered by an IGA and Related Entities

A reporting IGA FFI resident in, or established under the laws of, a jurisdiction covered by a Model 1 IGA should check “Reporting Model 1 FFI.” A reporting FFI resident in, or established under the laws of, a jurisdiction covered by a Model 2 IGA should check “Reporting Model 2 FFI.”

If the FFI is treated as a registered deemed-compliant FFI under an applicable IGA, it should check “Nonreporting IGA FFI” rather than “registered deemed-compliant FFI” and provide its GIIN in Part XII, line 26.

An FFI that is related to a reporting IGA FFI and that is treated as a nonparticipating FFI in its country of residence should check nonparticipating FFI in line 5. An FFI that is related to a reporting IGA FFI and that is a participating FFI, deemed-compliant FFI, or exempt beneficial owner under the U.S. Treasury regulations or an applicable IGA should check the appropriate box for its chapter 4 status.

Requirement to Provide a GIIN

If the entity is in the process of registering with the IRS as a participating FFI, registered deemed-compliant FFI, reporting Model 1 FFI, reporting Model 2 FFI, direct reporting NFFE, or sponsored direct reporting NFFE, but has not received a GIIN, it may complete this line by writing “applied for.” However, the person requesting this form must receive and verify the GIIN within 90 days.

For payments made prior to January 1, 2015, a Form W-8BEN-E provided by a reporting Model 1 FFI need not contain a GIIN. For payments made prior to January 1, 2016, a sponsored direct reporting NFFE or sponsored FFI that has not obtained a GIIN must provide the GIIN of its sponsoring entity.

501(c) Organization

Only foreign entities that are tax-exempt under section 501 should check the 501(c) organization “Tax-exempt organization” box. Such organizations should use Form W-8BEN-E only if they are claiming a reduced rate of withholding under an income tax treaty or a code exception other than section 501. If claiming an exemption from withholding under code section 501, then it must submit Form W-8EXP to document the exemption and chapter 4 status.

Non-Profit Organizations Covered by an IGA

A non-profit entity that is established and maintained in a jurisdiction that is treated as having in effect a Model 1 IGA or Model 2 IGA, and that meets the definition of Active NFFE under Annex I of the applicable IGA, should not check a box for its status on line 5.

Completion of Parts IV through XXVIII

An entity should complete only one part of Parts IV through XXVIII certifying to the chapter 4 status. But an entity that selects nonparticipating FFI, participating FFI, registered deemed-compliant FFI, reporting Model 1 FFI, reporting Model 2 FFI, or direct reporting NFFE (other than a sponsored direct reporting NFFE) is not required to complete any of the certifications in Parts IV through XXVIII.

Part IV Sponsored FFI That Has Not Obtained a GIIN
Part V Certified Deemed-Compliant Nonregistering Local Bank
Part VI Certified Deemed-Compliant FFI with Only Low-Value Accounts
Part VII Certified Deemed-Compliant Sponsored, Closely Held Investment Vehicle
Part VIII Certified Deemed-Compliant Limited Life Debt Investment Entity
Part IX Certified Deemed-Compliant Investment Advisors and Investment Managers
Part X Owner-Documented FFI
Part XI Restricted Distributor
Part XII Nonreporting IGA FFI
Part XIII Foreign Government, Government of a U.S. Possession, or Foreign Central Bank of Issue
Part XIV International Organization
Part XV Exempt Retirement Plans
Part XVI Entity Wholly Owned by Exempt Beneficial Owners
Part XVII Territory Financial Institution
Part XVIII Excepted Nonfinancial Group Entity
Part XIX Excepted Nonfinancial Start-Up Company
Part XX Excepted Nonfinancial Entity in Liquidation or Bankruptcy
Part XXI 501(c) Organization
Part XXII Non-Profit Organization
Part XXIII Publicly Traded NFFE or NFFE Affiliate of a Publicly Traded Corporation
Part XXIV Excepted Territory NFFE
Part XXV Active NFFE
Part XXVI Passive NFFE
Part XXVII Excepted Inter-Affiliate FFI
Part XXVIII Sponsored Direct Reporting NFFE
Part XXIX Certification
Part XXX Substantial U.S. Owners of Passive NFFE

Part X – Owner-Documented FFI

Line 24a. An owner-documented FFI must check the box to certify that it meets all of the requirements for this status and is providing this form to a U.S. financial institution, participating FFI, reporting Model 1 FFI, or reporting Model 2 FFI that agrees to act as a designated withholding agent with respect to the FFI identified on line 1. Then select either 24b or 24c.

Line 24b. Check this box to certify that the documentation set forth in the certifications has been provided (or will be provided), including the owner reporting statement described in this line 24b, or

Line 24c. Check this box to certify that the auditor’s letter has been provided (or will be provided).

Entities Providing Certifications Under an Applicable IGA

In lieu of the certifications contained in Parts IV through XXVIII of Form W-8BEN-E, a reporting Model 1 FFI or reporting Model 2 FFI in certain cases may request alternate certifications to document its account holders pursuant to an applicable IGA or it may otherwise provide an alternate certification to a withholding agent.

A withholding agent that is an FFI may provide a chapter 4 status certification other than as shown in Parts IX through XXVIII in order to satisfy its due diligence requirements under an applicable IGA. In such a case, attach that alternative certification to this Form W-8BEN-E in lieu of completing a certification otherwise required in Parts IV through XXVIII provided that

1) the certification accurately reflects the chapter 4 status or under an applicable IGA; and

2) the withholding agent provides a written statement that it has provided the certification to meet its due diligence requirements as a participating FFI or registered deemed-compliant FFI under an applicable IGA.

An applicable IGA certification may be provided with the W-8BEN-E if determining chapter 4 status under the definitions provided in an applicable IGA and that certification identifies the jurisdiction that is treated as having an IGA in effect and describes the status as an NFFE or FFI in accordance with the applicable IGA.

However, if under an applicable IGA the entity’s status is determined to be an NFFE, it must still determine if it is an excepted NFFE under the FATCA Regulations. Additionally, the entity must comply with the conditions of its status under the law of the IGA jurisdiction.

book coverLexis Guide to FATCA Compliance – 2015 Edition 

1,200 pages of analysis of the compliance challenges, over 54 chapters by 70 FATCA contributing experts from over 30 countries.  Besides in-depth, practical analysis, the 2015 edition includes examples, charts, time lines, links to source documents, and compliance analysis pursuant to the IGA and local regulations for many U.S. trading partners and financial centers.   The Lexis Guide to FATCA Compliance, designed from interviews with over 100 financial institutions and professional firms, is a primary reference source for financial institutions and service providers, advisors and government departments.  No filler of forms and regs – it’s all beef !  See Lexis’ order site and request a copy of the forthcoming 2015 edition – http://www.lexisnexis.com/store/catalog/booktemplate/productdetail.jsp?pageName=relatedProducts&prodId=prod19190327

A free download of the first of the 34 chapters is available at http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2457671

<— Subscribe by email on the left menu to the FATCA Updates on this blog:  https://profwilliambyrnes.com/category/fatca/

If you are interested in discussing the Master or Doctoral degree in the areas of international taxation or anti money laundering compliance, please contact me profbyrnes@gmail.com to Google Hangout or Skype that I may take you on an “online tour”

  • Chapter 1 Background and Current Status of FATCA
  • Chapter 1A The International Financial System and FATCA
  • Chapter 2 Practical Considerations for Developing a FATCA Compliance Program
  • Chapter 2A FATCA Internal Policy
  • Chapter 3 FATCA Compliance and Integration of Information Technology
  • Chapter 4 Financial Institution Account Remediation
  • Chapter 4A FATCA Customer Outreach
  • Chapter 5 FBAR and Form 8938 Reporting and List of International Taxpayer IRS Forms
  • Chapter 6 Determining U.S. Ownership of Foreign Entities
  • Chapter 7 Foreign Financial Institutions
  • Chapter 7A Account reporting under FATCA
  • Chapter 8 Non-Financial Foreign Entities
  • Chapter 9 FATCA and the Offshore Trust Industry
  • Chapter 10 FATCA and the Insurance Industry
  • Chapter 11 Withholding and Qualified Intermediary
  • Chapter 12 FATCA Withholding Compliance
  • Chapter 13 “Withholdable” Payments
  • Chapter 13A Reporting Payments
  • Chapter 14 Determining and Documenting the Payee
  • Chapter 14A W8 Equivalents
  • Chapter 15 Framework of Intergovernmental Agreements
  • Chapter 16 Analysis of Current Intergovernmental Agreements
  • Chapter 17 European Union Cross Border Information Reporting
  • Chapter 18 The OECD Role in Exchange of Information: The Trace Project, FATCA, and Beyond
  • Chapter 19 Germany
  • Chapter 20 Ireland
  • Chapter 21 Japan
  • Chapter 22 Mexico
  • Chapter 23 Switzerland
  • Chapter 24 United Kingdom
  • Chapter 25 Brazil
  • Chapter 26 British Virgin Islands
  • Chapter 27 Canada
  • Chapter 28 Spain
  • Chapter 29 China
  • Chapter 30 Netherlands
  • Chapter 31 Luxembourg
  • Chapter 32 Russia
  • Chapter 33 Turkey
  • Chapter 34 India
  • Chapter 35 Argentina
  • Chapter 36 Aruba
  • Chapter 37 Australia
  • Chapter 38 Bermuda
  • Chapter 39 Colombia
  • Chapter 40 Cyprus
  • Chapter 41 Hong Kong
  • Chapter 42 Macau
  • Chapter 43 Portugal
  • Chapter 44 South Africa
  • Chapter 45 France
  • Chapter 46 Gibraltar
  • Chapter 47 Guernsey
  • Chapter 48 Italy

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